When Sex Hurts
Painful intercourse, or dyspareunia (dis-puh-ROO-ne-uh), is a common problem that affects up to 20 percent of women and a smaller percentage of men. It has a variety of possible causes, ranging from lack of lubrication or infections, to structural or psychological problems.
Possible causes include, but are not limited to:
- Endometriosis (when uterine tissue grows outside the uterus)
- Ovarian cysts
- Infections of the urinary tract, vagina or pelvic inflammatory disease
- Uterine prolapse
- Tumors or uterine fibroids (non-cancerous growths)
- Scarring – from surgery or injury
- Vaginismus (involuntary musculature contractions of the pelvic floor)
- Peyronie’s disease or other deformities of the penis
- Interstitial cystitis (chronic bladder pain or pressure)
- Vaginal atrophy
- Xerosis (vaginal dryness, especially after menopause)
- Cancer treatment – such as radiation or chemotherapy
Effective treatment begins with correct diagnosis, which typically starts with a physical exam and a review of the symptoms, including whether the pain feels more like aching or burning, whether it is a new symptom or an ongoing problem, and under what circumstances the pain occurs.
The physical exam may be followed by one of more of these common diagnostic tests:
- Lab analysis – to check for bacterial, fungal or viral infections
- Biopsies – to examine suspicious lesions or tissue changes
- Pelvic ultrasound – to examine pelvic organs and identify painful areas
- Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) – to look for congenital abnormalities
- Colposcopy – which uses a lighted, magnified scope (or tube) inserted into the vagina to examine the cervix and vaginal tissues
- Cystoscopy – which uses a scope inserted into the urethra (the tube that carries urine out of the bladder) to examine the lining of the bladder and urinary tract
- Laparoscopy – which uses a thin, lighted scope inserted through a small incision in the lower abdomen to check for cysts, adhesions or fibroids
Treatment varies depending on diagnosis, but may include one or more of the following options:
- Lubrications and creams – including over-the-counter options as well as those containing estrogen, for postmenopausal women
- Medications – including hormones to treat dryness or endometriosis, antibiotics for infections, analgesics for pain, muscle relaxants and medications to treat underlying illnesses
- Physical therapy – including vaginal relaxation and pelvic floor (Kegel) exercises
- Biofeedback or electrical stimulation – to assist with Kegel exercises or with relaxation and stretching of the pelvic floor
- Surgery – to correct physical abnormalities or to remove fibroids or other tumors
- Counseling or sex therapy – to treat anxiety, to seek out less painful behaviors or positions, and to reduce negative emotional responses that may linger even after treatment of physical disorders
The MidMichigan Difference
- MidMichigan offers DaVinci Robotic Surgery to enable advanced minimally invasive procedures for many complex surgeries.
- MidMichigan facilities are conveniently located in safe and friendly communities, with easy access and parking.
Your Next Steps
For more information about painful sex, talk to your physician. For a physician referral, visit our Find a Doctor section, or call the MidMichigan Health Line at (989) 839-9090 or toll-free at (800) 999-3199.